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Lectin-Modified Bacterial Cellulose Nanocrystals Decorated with Au Nanoparticles for Selective Detection of Bacteria Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Coupled with Machine Learning

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journal contribution
posted on 07.01.2022, 21:43 by Asifur Rahman, Seju Kang, Wei Wang, Qishen Huang, Inyoung Kim, Peter J. Vikesland
Bacterial cellulose nanocrystals (BCNCs) are tunable and biocompatible cellulose nanomaterials that can be easily bioconjugated and used for biosensing applications. We report the application of concanavalin A (con A) lectin-modified BCNCs (con A + BCNCs) for bacterial isolation and label-free surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection of bacterial species using Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). The aggregated AuNP + bacteria + (con A + BCNC) conjugates generated SERS hot spots that enabled the SERS detection of the strain Escherichia coli 8739 at the 103 CFU/mL level. The optimized detection assay was then used to differentiate 19 common bacterial strains. The large SERS spectral dataset for the 19 bacterial strains was analyzed using the support vector machine (SVM), an optimization-based machine-learning technique that worked as a binary classifier. The SVM classifier showed a high overall accuracy of 87.7% in correctly discriminating bacterial strains. This study illustrates the potential of combining low-cost nanocellulose-based SERS biosensors with machine-learning techniques for the analysis of large spectral datasets.