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Lead-Free Antimony-Based Light-Emitting Diodes through the Vapor–Anion-Exchange Method

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journal contribution
posted on 10.09.2019, 14:35 by Anupriya Singh, Nan-Chieh Chiu, Karunakara Moorthy Boopathi, Yu-Jung Lu, Anisha Mohapatra, Gang Li, Yang-Fang Chen, Tzung-Fang Guo, Chih-Wei Chu
Hybrid lead halide perovskites continue to attract interest for use in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes. Although challenging, the replacement of toxic lead in these systems is an active field of research. Recently, the use of trivalent metal cations (Bi3+ and Sb3+) that form defect perovskites A3B2X9 has received great attention for the development of solar cells, but their light-emissive properties have not previously been studied. Herein, an all-inorganic antimony-based two-dimensional perovskite, Cs3Sb2I9, was synthesized using the solution process. Vapor–anion-exchange method was employed to change the structural composition from Cs3Sb2I9 to Cs3Sb2Br9 or Cs3Sb2Cl9 by treating CsI/SbI3 spin-coated films with SbBr3 or SbCl3, respectively. This novel method facilitates the fabrication of Cs3Sb2Br9 or Cs3Sb2Cl9 through solution processing without the need of using poorly soluble precursors (e.g., CsCl and CsBr). We go on to demonstrate electroluminescence from a device employing Cs3Sb2I9 emitter sandwiched between ITO/PEDOT:PSS and TPBi/LiF/Al as the hole and electron injection electrodes, respectively. A visible–infrared radiance of 0.012 W·Sr–1·m–2 was measured at 6 V when Cs3Sb2I9 was the active emitter layer. These proof-of-principle devices suggest a viable path toward low-dimensional, lead-free A3B2X9 perovskite optoelectronics.