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Label-Free Mass Spectrometry Proteomics Reveals Different Pathways Modulated in THP‑1 Cells Infected with Therapeutic Failure and Drug Resistance Leishmania infantum Clinical Isolates

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posted on 2023-02-10, 15:10 authored by Lorenzo Tagliazucchi, Ana Perea-Martinez, Greta Fiorini, José Ignacio Manzano, Filippo Genovese, Raquel García-Hernández, Diego Pinetti, Francisco Gamarro, Maria Paola Costi
As the world is facing increasing difficulties to treat leishmaniasis with current therapies, deeper investigation into the molecular mechanisms responsible for both drug resistance and treatment failure (TF) is essential in drug discovery and development. So far, few available drugs cause severe side effects and have developed several resistance mechanisms. Drug resistance and TF parasite strains from clinical isolates may have acquired altered expression of proteins that characterize specific mechanisms leading to therapy inefficacy. This work aims to identify the biochemical pathways of THP-1 human monocytes infected by different Leishmania infantum clinical isolates from patients with either resistance or with TF outcome, using whole cell differential Mass Spectrometry proteomics. We have adopted network enrichment analysis to integrate the transcriptomics and the proteomic results of infected cells studies. Transferrin receptor C (TFRC) and nucleoside diphosphate kinase 3 (NDK3) were discovered as overexpressed proteins in THP-1 cells infected with paromomycin, antimony, and miltefosine resistant L. infantum lines. The overall achievements represent founding concepts to confirm new targets involved in the parasitic drug resistance and TF mechanisms, and to consider in perspective the importance of a dual host–guest pharmacological approach to treat the acute stage of the disease.

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