Isolation and Metabolic Assessment of Cancer Cell Mitochondria
journal contributionposted on 12.10.2020, 17:48 by Nguyen Phuoc Long, Jung Eun Min, Nguyen Hoang Anh, Sun Jo Kim, Seongoh Park, Hyung Min Kim, Sang Jun Yoon, Johan Lim, Seul Ji Lee, Sung Won Kwon
Mitochondrial metabolism plays an essential role in various biological processes of cancer cells. Herein, we established an experimental procedure for the metabolic assessment of mitochondria in cancer cells. We examined procedures for mitochondrial isolation coupled with various mitochondrial extraction buffers in three major cancer cell lines (PANC1, A549, and MDA-MB-231) and identified a potentially optimal and generalized approach. The purity of the mitochondrial fraction isolated by the selected protocol was verified using specific protein markers of cellular components, and the ultrastructure of the isolated mitochondria was also analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The isolation procedure, involving a bead beater for cell lysis, a modified sucrose buffer, and differential centrifugation, appeared to be a suitable method for the extraction of mitochondria from cancer cells. Electron micrographs indicated an intact two-layer membrane and inner structures of mitochondria isolated by this procedure. Metabolomic and lipidomic analyses were conducted to examine the metabolic phenotypes of the mitochondria-enriched fractions and associated bulk cancer cells. A total of 44 metabolites, including malate and succinate, occurred at significantly higher levels in the mitochondrial fractions, whereas 51 metabolites, including citrate, oxaloacetate, and fumarate of the Krebs cycle and the oncometabolites glutamine and glutamate, were reduced in mitochondria compared to that in the corresponding bulk cells of PANC1. Similar patterns were observed in mitochondria and bulk cells of MDA-MB-231 and A549 cell lines. A clear difference between the lipid profiles of bulk PANC1, MDA-MB-231, and A549 and corresponding mitochondrial fractions of these cell lines was detected by principal component analysis. In conclusion, we developed an experimental procedure for a large-scale metabolic assessment for suborganelle metabolic profiling and multiple omics data integration in cancer cells with broad applications.