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Insights into the Inhibition of Aeromonas hydrophila d‑Alanine–d‑Alanine Ligase by Integration of Kinetics and Structural Analysis

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journal contribution
posted on 01.07.2020, 18:38 by Yingli Zhang, Siyu Gong, Xuan Wang, Murtala Muhammad, Yangyang Li, Shuaishuai Meng, Qin Li, Dong Liu, Huaidong Zhang
Aeromonas hydrophila, a pathogenic bacterium, is harmful to humans, domestic animals, and fishes and, moreover, of public health concern due to the emergence of multiple drug-resistant strains. The cell wall has been discovered as a novel and efficient drug target against bacteria, and d-alanine–d-alanine ligase (Ddl) is considered as an essential enzyme in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. Herein, we studied the A. hydrophila HBNUAh01 Ddl (AhDdl) enzyme activity and kinetics and determined the crystal structure of AhDdl/d-Ala complex at 2.7 Å resolution. An enzymatic assay showed that AhDdl exhibited higher affinity to ATP (Km: 54.1 ± 9.1 μM) compared to d-alanine (Km: 1.01 ± 0.19 mM). The kinetic studies indicated a competitive inhibition of AhDdl by d-cycloserine (DCS), with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 120 μM and the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) value of 0.5 mM. Meanwhile, structural analysis indicated that the AhDdl/d-Ala complex structure adopted a semi-closed conformation form, and the active site was extremely conserved. Noteworthy is that the substrate d-Ala occupied the second d-Ala position, not the first d-Ala position. These results provided more insights for understanding the details of the catalytic mechanism and resources for the development of novel drugs against the diseases caused by A. hydrophila.