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Infrared Spectroscopy of Cationized Lysine and ε-N-methyllysine in the Gas Phase:  Effects of Alkali-Metal Ion Size and Proton Affinity on Zwitterion Stability

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journal contribution
posted on 16.08.2007, 00:00 by Matthew F. Bush, Matthew W. Forbes, Rebecca A. Jockusch, Jos Oomens, Nick C. Polfer, Richard J. Saykally, Evan R. Williams
The gas-phase structures of protonated and alkali-metal-cationized lysine (Lys) and ε-N-methyllysine (Lys(Me)) are investigated using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy utilizing light generated by a free electron laser, in conjunction with ab initio calculations. IRMPD spectra of Lys·Li+ and Lys·Na+ are similar, but the spectrum for Lys·K+ is different, indicating that the structure of lysine in these complexes depends on the metal ion size. The carbonyl stretch of a carboxylic acid group is clearly observed in each of these spectra, indicating that lysine is nonzwitterionic in these complexes. A detailed comparison of these spectra to those calculated for candidate low-energy structures indicates that the bonding motif for the metal ion changes from tricoordinated for Li and Na to dicoordinated for K, clearly revealing the increased importance of hydrogen-bonding relative to metal ion solvation with increasing metal ion size. Spectra for Lys(Me)·M+ show that Lys(Me), an analogue of lysine whose side chain contains a secondary amine, is nonzwitterionic with Li and zwitterionic with K and both forms are present for Na. The proton affinity of Lys(Me) is 16 kJ/mol higher than that of Lys; the higher proton affinity of a secondary amine can result in its preferential protonation and stabilization of the zwitterionic form.