Influence of the Inclusion of Ignition Stage Emissions in the Development of Emission Factors for Coal Cookstoves Used in India
journal contributionposted on 19.02.2019, 00:00 by Darpan Das, Upendra Bhandarkar, Virendra Sethi
Coal is used widely for domestic cooking in many regions of India, which contributes significantly to the particulate matter (PM < 2.5 μm) and CO levels in ambient and indoor air. Modeling and inventorization require the use of emission factors (EFs) for cookstoves, which are specific to fuel type and cookstove design. These are usually not available or are available for emissions under steady state combustion conditions following some protocols that are end-use-specific. In this study, two types of cookstoves are deployed, and PM < 2.5 μm and CO emissions are measured for a combustion cycle that includes an initial ignition stage, a flaming stage, and a smoldering stage. EFs are estimated for PM < 2.5 μm and CO for each of these stages of the combustion cycle and indicate a 5–9-fold increase for PM < 2.5 μm when emissions from the ignition stage are included. Elemental carbon and organic carbon analyses are presented for PM < 2.5 μm using two protocols, namely, IMPROVE_A and DIN-19539. The EFs developed for the complete combustion cycle may be used to better represent the impact of coal cookstoves on the ambient air quality and for a more realistic assessment of health effects for exposure in kitchens.