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Influence of Nitrate and Phosphate on Silica Fibrous Beta Zeolite Framework for Enhanced Cyclic and Noncyclic Alkane Isomerization

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journal contribution
posted on 17.01.2020, 21:49 by Siti Maryam Izan, Aishah Abdul Jalil, Che Ku Nor Liana Che Ku Hitam, Walid Nabgan
Phosphate and nitrate were loaded on silica BEA (P/HSi@BEA and N/HSi@BEA), which is fibrously protonated by the impregnation method for n-hexane and cyclohexane isomerization. The characterization analysis specified the removal of tetrahedral aluminum atoms in the framework, which was triggered by the existence of phosphate and nitrate groups in the catalyst. The exchanged role of Si­(OH)Al to P–OH as active acidic sites in the P/HSi@BEA catalyst reduced its acidic strength, which was confirmed by the FTIR results. Lewis acidic sites of P/HSi@BEA performance are a significant part in the generation of high protonic acid sites, as proven by the in situ ESR study. However, FTIR evacuation and 27Al NMR revealed that the reduction in the amount of extraframework Al (EFAl) is due to its interaction with the nitrate group on the outside of the catalyst surface. The N/HSi@BEA catalyst exhibited high acidic strength because of the existence of more Si­(OH)­Al, which was initiated during the nitrate-incorporation process. Of significance is that the catalytic performance of n-hexane isomerization in the presence of hydrogen reached 50.3% product isomer yield at 250 °C, which might be ascribed to the presence of P–OH active sites that are responsible for accepting electrons, forming active protonic acid sites. NO3–EFAl interaction induced the formation of Brønsted acid sites, and higher mesopore volume favors the production of cyclohexane isomers up to 48.4% at 250 °C. This fundamental study exhibits that significant interactions given by such phosphate and nitrate groups with the unique silica fibrous BEA support could enhance isomerization, which contributes to the high quality of fuel.