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Influence of Chloride Ions on the Synthesis of Colloidal Branched CdSe/CdS Nanocrystals by Seeded Growth
journal contributionposted on 2012-12-21, 00:00 authored by Mee Rahn Kim, Karol Miszta, Mauro Povia, Rosaria Brescia, Sotirios Christodoulou, Mirko Prato, Sergio Marras, Liberato Manna
We studied the influence of chloride ions (Cl–), introduced as CdCl2, on the seeded growth synthesis of colloidal branched CdSe(core)/CdS(pods) nanocrystals. This is carried out by growing wurtzite CdS pods on top of preformed octahedral sphalerite CdSe seeds. When no CdCl2 is added, the synthesis of multipods has a low reproducibility, and the side nucleation of CdS nanorods is often observed. At a suitable concentration of CdCl2, octapods are formed and they are stable in solution during the synthesis. Our experiments indicate that Cl– ions introduced in the reaction reduce the availability of Cd2+ ions in solution, most likely via formation of strong complexes with both Cd and the various surfactants. This prevents homogeneous nucleation of CdS nanocrystals, so that the heterogeneous nucleation of CdS pods on top of the CdSe seeds is the preferred process. Once such optimal concentration of CdCl2 is set for a stable growth of octapods, the pod lengths can be tuned by varying the relative ratios of the various alkyl phosphonic acids used. Furthermore, at higher concentrations of CdCl2 added, octapods are initially formed, but many of them evolve into tetrapods over time. This transformation points to an additional role of Cl species in regulating the growth rate and stability of various crystal facets of the CdS pods.