Inflammation Response of Water-Soluble Fractions in Atmospheric Fine Particulates: A Seasonal Observation in 10 Large Chinese Cities
journal contributionposted on 04.03.2019, 00:00 by Huimin Ma, Jun Li, Cong Wan, Yaohui Liang, Xiangyun Zhang, Guanghui Dong, Liwen Hu, Boyi Yang, Xiaowen Zeng, Tao Su, Shaoyou Lu, Shejun Chen, Mahdi Safaei Khorram, Guoying Sheng, Xinming Wang, Bixian Mai, Zhiqiang Yu, Gan Zhang
Spatiotemporal trends in pro-inflammatory (interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8) release after exposure to the water-soluble fractions of PM2.5 sampled in 10 large Chinese cities over 1 year were investigated. Chemical components (water-soluble ions, metal(loid) elements, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), humic-like substances (HULIS), and endotoxins) in PM2.5 samples were measured, and the molecular structure of WSOC was also analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Changes in DNA methylation and gene expression of candidate genes were also evaluated to explore the potential mechanisms. PM2.5 from southern cities induced lower pro-inflammatory responses compared to those from northern cities. Seasonal differences in toxicity were noted among the cities. IL-6 was significantly correlated with HULIS (as the main fraction of WSOC with oxygenated carbohydrate structures characteristic), Pb, and endotoxin. Furthermore, DNA methylation and gene expression changes in RASSF2 and CYP1B1 were related to pro-inflammatory secretion. Certain components of PM2.5, rather than PM2.5 mass itself, determine the pro-inflammatory release. In particular, HULIS, which originated from primary biomass burning and residual coal combustion, and secondary organic aerosols, appear to be the key component in PM2.5 to induce human health risk.