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Improved Cyclic Performance of Si Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries by Forming Intermetallic Interphases between Si Nanoparticles and Metal Microparticles

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journal contribution
posted on 27.11.2013, 00:00 by Xingkang Huang, Haihui Pu, Jingbo Chang, Shumao Cui, Peter B. Hallac, Junwei Jiang, Patrick T. Hurley, Junhong Chen
Silicon, an anode material with the highest capacity for lithium-ion batteries, needs to improve its cyclic performance prior to practical applications. Here, we report on a novel design of Si/metal composite anode in which Si nanoparticles are welded onto surfaces of metal particles by forming intermetallic interphases through a rapid heat treatment. Unlike pure Si materials that gradually lose electrical contact with conductors and binders upon repeated charging and discharging cycles, Si in the new Si/metal composite can maintain the electrical contact with the current collector through the intermetallic interphases, which are inactive and do not lose physical contact with the conductors and binders, resulting in significantly improved cyclic performance. Within 100 cycles, only 23.8% of the capacity of the pure Si anode is left while our Si/Ni anode obtained at 900 °C maintains 73.7% of its capacity. Therefore, the concept of employing intermetallic interphases between Si nanoparticles and metal particles provides a new avenue to improve the cyclic performance of Si-based anodes.