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Importance of Aspartate Residues in Balancing the Flexibility and Fine-Tuning the Catalysis of Human 3‑Phosphoglycerate Kinase

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journal contribution
posted on 21.12.2012, 00:00 by Andrea Varga, Zoltan Palmai, Zoltán Gugolya, Éva Gráczer, Ferenc Vonderviszt, Péter Závodszky, Erika Balog, Mária Vas
The exact role of the metal ion, usually Mg2+, in the catalysis of human 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, a well-studied two-domain enzyme, has not been clarified. Here we have prepared single and double alanine mutants of the potential metal-binding residues, D374 and D218. While all mutations weaken the catalytic interactions with Mg2+, they surprisingly strengthen binding of both MgADP and MgATP, and the effects are even more pronounced for ADP and ATP. Thermodynamic parameters of binding indicate an increase in the binding entropy as a reason for the strengthening. In agreement with the experimental results, computer-simulated annealing calculations for the complexes of these mutants have supported the mobility of the nucleotide phosphates and, as a consequence, formation of their new interaction(s) within the active site. A similar type of mobility is suggested to be a characteristic feature of the nucleotide site of the wild-type enzyme, too, both in its inactive open conformation and in the active closed conformation. This mobility of the nucleotide phosphates that is regulated by the aspartate side chains of D218 and D374 through the complexing Mg2+ is suggested to be essential in enzyme function.