American Chemical Society
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Impact of Charge Voltage on Factors Influencing Capacity Fade in Layered NMC622: Multimodal X‑ray and Electrochemical Characterization

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journal contribution
posted on 2021-10-25, 14:54 authored by Calvin D. Quilty, Garrett P. Wheeler, Lei Wang, Alison H. McCarthy, Shan Yan, Killian R. Tallman, Mikaela R. Dunkin, Xiao Tong, Steven Ehrlich, Lu Ma, Kenneth J. Takeuchi, Esther S. Takeuchi, David C. Bock, Amy C. Marschilok
Ni-rich NMC is an attractive Li-ion battery cathode due to its combination of energy density, thermal stability, and reversibility. While higher delivered energy density can be achieved with a more positive charge voltage limit, this approach compromises sustained reversibility. Improved understanding of the local and bulk structural transformations as a function of charge voltage, and their associated impacts on capacity fade are critically needed. Through simultaneous operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of cells cycled at 3–4.3 or 3–4.7 V, this study presents an in-depth investigation into the effects of voltage window on local coordination, bulk structure, and oxidation state. These measurements are complemented by ex situ X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping and scanning electrochemical microscopy mapping (SECM) of the negative electrode, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of the positive electrode, and cell level electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Initially, cycling between 3 and 4.7 V leads to greater delivered capacity due to greater lithium extraction, accompanied by increased structural distortion, moderately higher Ni oxidation, and substantially higher Co oxidation. Continued cycling at this high voltage results in suppressed Ni and Co redox, greater structural distortion, increased levels of transition metal dissolution, higher cell impedance, and 3× greater capacity fade.