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Immunomodulatory Constituents of Conocephalum conicum (Snake Liverwort) and the Relationship of Isolepidozenes to Germacranes and Humulanes

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journal contribution
posted on 2020-12-02, 20:44 authored by Niko S. Radulović, Sonja I. Filipović, Milan S. Nešić, Nikola M. Stojanović, Katarina V. Mitić, Marko Z. Mladenović, Vladimir N. Ranđelović
Structural elucidation of three new sesquiterpenoids, namely, (1Z,4E)-lepidoza-1­(10),4-dien-14-ol (1), rel-(1­(10)Z,4S,5E,7R)-germacra-1­(10),6 diene-11,14-diol (2), and rel-(1­(10)Z,4S,5E,7R)-humula-1­(10),5-diene-7,14-diol (3), isolated from the liverwort Conocephalum conicum, was accomplished by a combination of extensive NMR experiments, 1H NMR simulation, and other means. Additionally, the change of the identity of bicyclogermacren-14-al, previously reported as a C. conicum constituent, to isolepidozen-14-al is proposed. Compounds 2 and 3 appear to be related to 1 via hydration involving a shared intermediate, a substituted cyclopropylmethyl cation, formed by a highly regio- and stereoselective protonation of 1, followed by a stereospecific fission of the three-membered ring. In other words, an isolepidozene derivative might be a branchpoint to humulanes and germacranes; this transformation could be of, up to now, unknown, biosynthetic and/or synthetic relevance. Multivariate statistical analysis of the compositional data of C. conicum extract constituents was used to probe the hypothesized biochemical relations. The immunomodulatory effect of 13 and conocephalenol (4) was evaluated in an in vitro model on both nonstimulated and mitogen-stimulated rat splenocytes. The compounds displayed varying degrees of cytotoxicity to nonstimulated splenocytes, whereas 2 and 3 were found to exert immunosuppressive effects on concanavalin A-stimulated splenocytes while not being cytotoxic at the same concentrations.

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