Imaging of Metal Ion Dissolution and Electrodeposition by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry−Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy
journal contributionposted on 15.05.2008, 00:00 by Mario A. Alpuche-Aviles, John E. Baur, David O. Wipf
We have developed a new imaging method for scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) employing fast-scan anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) to provide sensitive and selective imaging of multiple chemical species at interfaces immersed in solution. A rapid cyclic voltammetry scan (100 V/s) is used along with a short preconcentration time (300–750 ms) to allow images to be acquired in a normal SECM time frame. A Hg−Pt film electrode is developed having an equivalent Hg thickness of 40 nm that has good sensitivity at short preconcentration times and also retains thin-film behavior with high-speed voltammetric stripping. Fast-scan anodic stripping currents are shown to be linear for 1–100 µM of Pb2+ and Cd2+ solutions using a preconcentration time of 300 ms. SECM images showing the presence of Pb2+ and Cd2+ at concentrations as low as 1 µM are presented. In addition, a single ASV-SECM image is shown to produce unique concentration maps indicating Cd2+ and Pb2+, generated in situ from a corroding sample, while simultaneously detecting the depletion of O2 at this sample. The transient voltammetric response at the film electrode is simulated and shows good agreement with the experimental behavior. We discuss the behavior of images and concentration profiles obtained with different imaging conditions and show that mass-transport limitations in the tip−substrate gap can induce dissolution. ASV-SECM can thus be used to detect and study induced dissolution not only at bulk metal surfaces but also on underpotential deposition layers, in this case Cd and Pb on Pt. In addition, we discuss how surface diffusion phenomena may relate to the observed ASV-SECM behavior.
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imaging conditionsdissolutionsurface diffusion phenomenaSECM time frameconcentration profilesimaging methodunderpotential deposition layersanodicPbconcentration mapscase Cdscanning electrochemical microscopyfilm electrodepreconcentration timeASVchemical speciesSECM images1 µ Mequivalent Hg thicknessO 2300 msMetal Ion Dissolutionsamplebulk metal surfacesvoltammetrypreconcentration timesvoltammetric response40 nm