Imaging of Flames in Cement Kilns To Study the Influence of Different Fuel Types
journal contributionposted on 2017-09-14, 00:00 authored by Morten Nedergaard Pedersen, Mads Nielsen, Sønnik Clausen, Peter Arendt Jensen, Lars Skaarup Jensen, Kim Dam-Johansen
The cement industry aims to use an increased amount of alternative fuels to reduce production costs and CO2 emissions. In this study three cement plants firing different kinds and percentages of alternative fuel were studied. A specially developed camera setup was used to monitor the flames in the three cement kilns and assess the effect of alternative fuels on the flame. It was found that cofiring with solid recovered fuel (SRF) would delay the ignition point by about 2 m and lower the intensity and temperature of the kiln flame compared to a fossil fuel flame. This is related to a larger particle size and moisture content of the alternative fuels, which lowers the conversion rate compared to fossil fuels. The consequences can be a lower kiln temperature and cement quality. The longer conversion time may also lead to the possibility of localized reducing conditions in the cement kiln, which can have a negative impact on the clinker quality and process stability. The burner design may alleviate some of the issues encountered with SRF cofiring. At one of the test plants the burner was changed from a design with an annular channel for axial air to a jet design. This proved to be beneficial for an early ignition and improved dispersion of the fuel and led to an increase in cement quality and higher use of SRF.