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Imaging Dual-Moiré Lattices in Twisted Bilayer Graphene Aligned on Hexagonal Boron Nitride Using Microwave Impedance Microscopy

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journal contribution
posted on 05.05.2021, 13:33 by Xiong Huang, Lingxiu Chen, Shujie Tang, Chengxin Jiang, Chen Chen, Huishan Wang, Zhi-Xun Shen, Haomin Wang, Yong-Tao Cui
Moiré superlattices (MSLs) formed in van der Waals materials have become a promising platform to realize novel two-dimensional electronic states. Angle-aligned trilayer structures can form two sets of MSLs which could potentially interfere. In this work, we directly image the moiré patterns in both monolayer and twisted bilayer graphene aligned on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), using combined scanning microwave impedance microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy. Correlation of the two techniques reveals the contrast mechanism for the achieved ultrahigh spatial resolution (<2 nm). We observe two sets of MSLs with different periodicities in the trilayer stack. The smaller MSL breaks the 6-fold rotational symmetry and exhibits abrupt discontinuities at the boundaries of the larger MSL. Using a rigid atomic-stacking model, we demonstrate that the hBN layer considerably modifies the MSL of twisted bilayer graphene. We further analyze its effect on the reciprocal space spectrum of the dual-moiré system.