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Identifying Homocouplings as Critical Side Reactions in Direct Arylation Polycondensation

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journal contribution
posted on 2014-08-19, 00:00 authored by Florian Lombeck, Hartmut Komber, Serge I. Gorelsky, Michael Sommer
Homocouplings are identified as major side reactions in direct arylation polycondensation (DAP) of 4,7-bis­(4-hexyl-2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (TBT) and 2,7-dibromo-9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole (CbzBr2). Using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and NMR spectroscopy, we demonstrate that both TBT and Cbz homocouplings occur at a considerable extent. TBT homocoupling preferentially occurs under phosphine-free conditions but can be suppressed in the presence of a phosphine ligand. Cbz homocoupling is temperature-dependent and more prevalent at higher temperatures. By contrast, evidence for chain branching as a result of unselective C–H arylation is not found for this monomer combination. These results emphasize that particular attention has to be paid to homocouplings in direct arylation polycondensations as a major source of main-chain defects, especially under phosphine-free conditions.

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