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Identification of a Novel Multifunctional Ligand for Simultaneous Inhibition of Amyloid-Beta (Aβ42) and Chelation of Zinc Metal Ion

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journal contribution
posted on 10.10.2019, 19:44 authored by Mohsen Asadbegi, Amir Shamloo
Zinc binding to β-amyloid structure could promote amyloid-β aggregation, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as suggested in many experimental and theoretical studies. Therefore, the introduction of multifunctional drugs capable of chelating zinc metal ion and inhibiting Aβ aggregation is a promising strategy in the development of AD treatment. The present study has evaluated the efficacy of a new bifunctional peptide drug using molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. This drug comprises two different domains, an inhibitor domain, obtained from the C-terminal hydrophobic region of Aβ, and a Zn2+ chelating domain, derived from rapeseed meal, merge with a linker. The multifunctionality of the ligand was evaluated using a comprehensive set of MD simulations spanning up to 3.2 μs including Aβ relaxation, ligand–Zn2+ bilateral interaction, and, more importantly, ligand–Zn2+–Aβ42 trilateral interactions. Analysis of the results strongly indicated that the bifunctional ligand can chelate zinc metal ion and avoid Aβ aggregation simultaneously. The present study illustrated that the proposed ligand has considerable hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding with monomeric Aβ in the presence of zinc metal ion. Therefore, in light of these considerable interactions and contacts, the α-helical structure of Aβ has been enhanced, while the β-sheet formation is prevented and the α-helix native structure is protected. Furthermore, the analysis of interactions between Aβ and ligand–zinc complex revealed that the zinc metal ion is coordinated to Met13, the ending residue of the ligand and merely one residue in Aβ. The results have proven the previous experimental and theoretical findings in the literature about Aβ interactions with zinc metal ion and also Aβ interactions with the first domain of the proposed ligand. Moreover, the current research has evaluated the chelation using MD simulation and linear interaction energy (LIE) methods, and the result has been satisfactorily verified with previous experimental and theoretical (DFT) studies.