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Identification of Protein Changes in the Urine of Hypothyroid Patients Treated with Thyroxine Using Proteomics Approach

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journal contribution
posted on 14.01.2021, 01:43 by Afshan Masood, Hicham Benabdelkamel, Anwar A. Jammah, Aishah A. Ekhzaimy, Assim A. Alfadda
The thyroid gland and thyroid hormones control a multitude of homeostatic functions including maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and normal functioning of the kidneys. Thyroid dysfunction alters the sytemic hemodynamic and metabolic balance, thereby affecting the kidney. In this study, we aimed to identify and characterize the urinary proteome of the patients with hypothyroidism. An untargeted proteomic approach with network analysis was used to identify changes in total urinary proteome in patients with newly diagnosed overt hypothyroidism. Urine samples were collected from nine age-matched patients’ before and after l-thyroxine treatment. Differences in the abundance of urinary proteins between hypothyroid and euthyroid states were determined using a two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight (MALDI TOF) mass spectrometry. Alterations in the abundance of urinary proteins, analyzed by Progenesis software, revealed statistically significant differential abundance in a total of 49 spots corresponding to 42 proteins, 28 up and 14 down (≥1.5-fold change, analysis of variance (ANOVA), p ≤ 0.05). The proteins identified in the study are known to regulate processes related to transport, acute phase response, oxidative stress, generation of reactive oxygen species, cellular proliferation, and endocytosis. Bioinformatic analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified dysregulation of pathways related to amino acid metabolism, molecular transport, and small-molecule biochemistry and involved the MAPK kinase, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), PI3 kinase/Akt, protein kinase C (PKC), signaling pathways. The identified proteins were involved in the regulation of thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyrotropin (TSH) metabolism. Alterations in their levels indicate the presence of a compensatory mechanism aimed at increasing the regulation of Tg in the hypothyroid state.