American Chemical Society
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Human Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase 3 on Graphene Oxide for Drug Metabolism Screening

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journal contribution
posted on 2015-03-03, 00:00 authored by Silvia Castrignanò, Gianfranco Gilardi, Sheila J. Sadeghi
Human flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (hFMO3), a membrane-bound hepatic protein, belonging to the second most important class of phase-1 drug-metabolizing enzymes, was immobilized in its active form on graphene oxide (GO) for enhanced electrochemical response. To improve protein stabilization and to ensure the electrocatalytic activity of the immobilized enzyme, didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) was used to mimic lipid layers of biological membranes and acted as an interface between GO nanomaterial and the hFMO3 biocomponent. Grazing angle attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (GATR-FT-IR) experiments confirmed the preservation of the protein secondary structure and fold. Electrochemical characterization of the immobilized enzyme with GO and DDAB on glassy carbon electrodes was carried out by cyclic voltammetry, where several parameters including redox potential, electron transfer rate, and surface coverage were determined. This system’s biotechnological application in drug screening was successfully demonstrated by the N-oxidation of two therapeutic drugs, benzydamine (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory) and tamoxifen (antiestrogenic widely used in breast cancer therapy and chemoprevention), by the immobilized enzyme.