Homolytic vs Heterolytic Paths in the Photochemistry of Haloanilines
journal contributionposted on 03.10.2003, 00:00 by Mauro Freccero, Maurizio Fagnoni, Angelo Albini
The photochemistry of 4-haloanilines and 4-halo-N,N-dimethylanilines has been studied in apolar, polar aprotic, and protic solvents. Photophysical and flash photolysis experiments show that the reaction proceeds in any case from the triplet state. It is rather unreactive in apolar media, the highest value being Φ = 0.05 for the iodoanilines in cyclohexane. Changing the solvent has little effect for iodoanilines and for the poorly reacting bromo analogue, while it leads to a variation of over 2 orders of magnitude in the quantum yield for the chloro and fluoro derivatives. The triplets have been characterized at the UB3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory, evidencing a deformation and an elongation (except for C−F) of the C−X bond. Homolytic fragmentation is in every case endothermic, but calculations in acetonitrile solution show that heterolytic cleavage of C−Cl and C−Br is exothermic. Experimentally, the occurrence of heterolytic fragmentation has been monitored through selective trapping of the resulting phenyl cation by allyltrimethylsilane. Heterolytic dechlorination occurs efficiently in polar media (e.g., Φ = 0.77 in MeCN), while debromination remains ineffective due to the short lifetime of the triplet. Heterolytic defluorination is efficient only in protic solvents (Φ = 0.48 in MeOH), in accord with calculations showing that in the presence of an ancillary molecule of water fragmentation is exothermic due to the formation of the strong H−F bond. The energy profile for both homo- and heterolytic dissociation paths has been mapped along the reaction coordinates in the gas phase and in acetonitrile. The conditions determining the efficiency and mode of dehalogenation have been defined. This is significant for devising synthetic methods via photogenerated phenyl cations and for rationalizing the photodegradation of halogenated aromatic pollutants and the phototoxic effect of some fluorinated drugs.
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heterolytic fragmentationacetonitrile solution showreaction proceedsflash photolysis experiments showphenyl cationbondheterolytic dissociation pathsheterolytic cleavage2 ordersHeterolytic defluorinationenergy profileHeterolytic dechlorinationprotic solventsgas phaseHomolytic fragmentationfluoro derivativesUB 3LYP levelHomolytic vs Heterolytic Pathsbromo analoguewater fragmentationapolar mediaiodoanilinephototoxic effectcalculationtriplet statephotogenerated phenyl cationsreaction coordinates