Highly Uniform Hollow GdF3 Spheres: Controllable Synthesis, Tuned Luminescence, and Drug-Release Properties
journal contributionposted on 13.11.2013, 00:00 by Ruichan Lv, Shili Gai, Yunlu Dai, Na Niu, Fei He, Piaoping Yang
In this paper, uniform hollow mesoporous GdF3 micro/nanospheres were successfully prepared by a facile two-step synthesis route without using any surfactant, catalyst, and further calcination process. The precursor Gd(OH)CO3 spheres are prepared by a coprecipitation process. After that, uniform and size-tunable GdF3 hollow spheres were easily coprecipitated with NaBF4 at the sacrifice of the precursor with low temperature and short reaction time. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution TEM, N2 adsorption/desorption, and up-conversion (UC) photoluminescence spectra were used to characterize the as-obtained products. It is found that the initial pH value and NaBF4/Gd3+ molar ratios play important roles in the structures, sizes, and phases of the hollow products. The growth mechanism of the hollow spheres has been systematically investigated based on the Kirkendall effect. Under 980 nm IR laser excitation, UC luminescence of the as-prepared Yb3+/Er3+-codoped GdF3 hollow spheres can be changed by a simple adjustment of the concentration of the Yb3+ ion. Enhanced red emission is obtained by introducing Li+ ions in GdF3:Yb3+/Er3+. Furthermore, a doxorubicin release experiment and a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cytotoxicity assay reveal that the product has potential application in drug delivery and targeted cancer therapy.
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Kirkendall effectdrug deliverypH valueNaBF 4980 nm IR laser excitationreaction timemesoporous GdF 3coprecipitation processuniformTEMprecursorcalcination processControllable Synthesisgrowth mechanismphotoluminescence spectrascanning electron microscopydoxorubicin release experimentsynthesis routetransmission electron microscopyTuned LuminescenceYbUC luminescenceUniform Hollow GdF 3 Spherescancer therapy