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Highly Efficient Syntheses of Azetidines, Pyrrolidines, and Indolines via Palladium Catalyzed Intramolecular Amination of C(sp3)–H and C(sp2)–H Bonds at γ and δ Positions

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journal contribution
posted on 11.01.2012, 00:00 by Gang He, Yingsheng Zhao, Shuyu Zhang, Chengxi Lu, Gong Chen
Efficient methods have been developed to synthesize azetidine, pyrrolidine, and indoline compounds via palladium-catalyzed intramolecular amination of C–H bonds at the γ and δ positions of picolinamide (PA) protected amine substrates. These methods feature relatively a low catalyst loading, use of inexpensive reagents, and convenient operating conditions. Their selectivities are predictable. These methods highlight the use of unactivated C–H bond, especially the C­(sp3)–H bond of methyl groups, as functional groups in organic synthesis.