High Precision Fabrication and Positioning of Nanoelectrodes in a Nanopore
journal contributionposted on 25.02.2014, 00:00 by Aleksandar P. Ivanov, Kevin J. Freedman, Min Jun Kim, Tim Albrecht, Joshua B. Edel
A simple and versatile method for the direct fabrication of tunneling electrodes with controllable gap distance by using electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) is presented. We show that tunneling nanogaps smaller than the minimum feature size realizable by conventional EBID can be achieved with a standard scanning electron microscope. These gaps can easily be embedded in nanopores with high accuracy. The controllability of this fabrication method and the nanogap geometry was verified by SEM and TEM imaging. Furthermore, tunneling spectroscopy in a group of solvents with different barrier heights was used to determine the nanogap functionality. Ultimately, the presented fabrication method can be further applied for the fabrication of arrays of nanogap/nanopores or nanogap electrodes with tunable electrode materials. Additionally, this method can also offer direct fabrication of nanoscale electrode systems with tunable spacing for redox cycling and plasmonic applications, which represents an important step in the development of tunneling nanopore structures and in enhancing the capabilities of nanopore sensors.