American Chemical Society
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High Performance Doped Li-Rich Li1+xMn2–xO4 Cathodes Nanoparticles Synthesized by Facile, Fast, and Efficient Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Route

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journal contribution
posted on 2022-06-27, 18:04 authored by Juliana B. Falqueto, Adam H. Clark, Aleš Štefančič, Glen J. Smales, Carlos A. F. Vaz, Albert J. Schuler, Nerilso Bocchi, Mario El Kazzi
Li-rich nanoparticles of Li1+xMn2–xO4 doped with Al, Co, or Ni are successfully synthesized using a facile, fast, and efficient microwave-assisted hydrothermal route. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction confirms the formation of the crystalline cubic spinel phase type. X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis at the Co and Ni K- and L-edges verifies that the dopants are within the Li1+xMn2–xO4 spinel structure and are inactive during cycling in the bulk and at the surface. Moreover, we demonstrate that nanocrystallinity and cationic doping play an important role in improving the electrochemical performance with respect to LiMn2O4 microparticles. They significantly reduce the charge-transfer resistance, lower the first cycle irreversible capacity loss to 6%, and achieve a capacity retention between 85 and 90% after 380 cycles, with excellent Coulombic efficiency close to 99% without compromising the specific charge at a 5C cycling rate. Furthermore, the Mn K- and L-edges attest that after long cycling, the Mn oxidation state in the bulk differs from that at the surface caused by the Mn disproportion reaction; however, the cationic doping helps mitigate the Mn dissolution with respect to the undoped Li1+xMn2–xO4 nanoparticles, as indicated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.