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High Capacity for Mg2+ Deintercalation in Spinel Vanadium Oxide Nanocrystals

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journal contribution
posted on 05.08.2020, 15:08 by Linhua Hu, Jacob R. Jokisaari, Bob Jin Kwon, Liang Yin, Soojeong Kim, Haesun Park, Saul H. Lapidus, Robert F. Klie, Baris Key, Peter Zapol, Brian J. Ingram, John T. Vaughey, Jordi Cabana
Nonaqueous Mg batteries can theoretically reach high energy density with cost-effective materials, yet no such device to date has performance competitive with Li-ion technologies. A major barrier is the need for oxide cathodes that combine high capacity and voltage. Very few oxides have shown intrinsic ability for Mg2+ intercalation in electrolytes with acceptably low content of H2O. Herein, we demonstrate that nanocrystals of MgV2O4 can reach high capacity for Mg2+ deintercalation with a mechanism that preserves their spinel framework, validated through measurements with different chemical and structural sensitivity. The structural stability contrasts with other phases where reaching high capacity required distortions that introduce undesirable mechanical strain. The favorable properties of the oxide allowed cycling in a full cell with Mg metal. This work reveals new insights into the viability of multivalent intercalation in oxides, meeting a milestone toward the feasibility of high-voltage batteries with either Mg metal or Mg-ion anodes.