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High-Throughput Continuous Hydrothermal Synthesis of Transparent Conducting Aluminum and Gallium Co-doped Zinc Oxides

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journal contribution
posted on 15.02.2017, 00:00 authored by Dougal P. Howard, Peter Marchand, Liam McCafferty, Claire J. Carmalt, Ivan P. Parkin, Jawwad A. Darr
High-throughput continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis was used to generate a library of aluminum and gallium-codoped zinc oxide nanoparticles of specific atomic ratios. Resistivities of the materials were determined by Hall Effect measurements on heat-treated pressed discs and the results collated into a conductivity-composition map. Optimal resistivities of ∼9 × 10–3 Ω cm were reproducibly achieved for several samples, for example, codoped ZnO with 2 at% Ga and 1 at% Al. The optimum sample on balance of performance and cost was deemed to be ZnO codoped with 3 at% Al and 1 at% Ga.