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High-Performance Organic Solar Cells Featuring Double Bulk Heterojunction Structures with Vertical-Gradient Selenium Heterocyclic Nonfullerene Acceptor Concentrations

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journal contribution
posted on 06.06.2021, 13:43 by Hao-Wen Cheng, Anisha Mohapatra, Yi-Ming Chang, Chuang-Yi Liao, Yu-Tang Hsiao, Chung-Hao Chen, Yu-Che Lin, Shih-Yu Huang, Bin Chang, Yang Yang, Chih-Wei Chu, Kung-Hwa Wei
In this study, we prepared organic photovoltaics (OPVs) featuring an active layer comprising double bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structures, featuring binary blends of a polymer donor and concentration gradients of two small-molecule acceptors. After forming the first BHJ structure by spin-coating, the second BHJ layer was transfer-printed onto the first using polydimethylsiloxane stamps. A specially designed selenium heterocyclic small-molecule acceptor (Y6-Se-4Cl) was employed as the second acceptor in the BHJ. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the two acceptors formed a gradient concentration profile across the active layer, thereby facilitating charge transportation. The best power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) for the double-BHJ-structured devices incorporating PM6:Y6-Se-4Cl/PM6:Y6 and PM6:Y6-Se-4Cl/PM6:IT-4Cl were 16.4 and 15.8%, respectively; these values were higher than those of devices having one-BHJ structures based on PM6:Y6-Se-4Cl (15.0%), PM6:Y6 (15.4%), and PM6:IT-4Cl (11.6%), presumably because of the favorable vertical concentration gradient of the selenium-containing small-molecule Y6-Se-4Cl in the active layer as well as some complementary light absorption. Thus, combining two BHJ structures with a concentration gradient of the two small-molecule acceptors can be an effective approach for enhancing the PCEs of OPVs.