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High-Concentration Ether Electrolytes for Stable High-Voltage Lithium Metal Batteries

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journal contribution
posted on 20.03.2019, 00:00 authored by Xiaodi Ren, Lianfeng Zou, Shuhong Jiao, Donghai Mei, Mark H. Engelhard, Qiuyan Li, Hongkyung Lee, Chaojiang Niu, Brian D. Adams, Chongmin Wang, Jun Liu, Ji-Guang Zhang, Wu Xu
High-voltage (>4.3 V) rechargeable lithium (Li) metal batteries (LMBs) face huge obstacles due to the high reactivity of Li metal with traditional electrolytes. Despite their good stability with Li metal, conventional ether-based electrolytes are typically used only in <4.0 V LMBs because of their limited oxidation stability. Here we report high-concentration ether electrolytes that can induce the formation of a unique cathode electrolyte interphase via the synergy between the salt and the ether solvent, which effectively stabilizes the catalytically active cathodes and preserves their structural integrity under high voltages. Eventually, LMBs can retain 92% capacity after 500 cycles at 4.3 V with very limited Li consumption. More importantly, such ether electrolytes enable stable battery cycling not only under voltages as high as 4.5 V but also on highly demanding Ni-rich layered cathodes. These findings significantly expand knowledge of ether electrolytes and provide new perspectives of electrolyte design for high-energy-density LMBs.