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Heme Protein Binding of Sulfonamide Compounds: A Correlation Study by Spectroscopic, Calorimetric, and Computational Methods

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journal contribution
posted on 04.02.2022, 13:03 authored by Aben Ovung, A. Mavani, Ambarnil Ghosh, Sabyasachi Chatterjee, Abhi Das, Gopinatha Suresh Kumar, Debes Ray, Vinod K. Aswal, Jhimli Bhattacharyya
Protein–ligand interaction studies are useful to determine the molecular mechanism of the binding phenomenon, leading to the establishment of the structure–function relationship. Here, we report the binding of well-known antibiotic sulfonamide drugs (sulfamethazine, SMZ; and sulfadiazine, SDZ) with heme protein myoglobin (Mb) using spectroscopic, calorimetric, ζ potential, and computational methods. Formation of a 1:1 complex between the ligand and Mb through well-defined equilibrium was observed. The binding constants obtained between Mb and SMZ/SDZ drugs were on the order of 104 M–1. SMZ with two additional methyl (−CH3) substitutions has higher affinity than SDZ. Upon drug binding, a notable loss in the helicity (via circular dichroism) and perturbation of the three-dimensional (3D) protein structure (via infrared and synchronous fluorescence experiments) were observed. The binding also indicated the dominance of non-polyelectrolytic forces between the amino acid residues of the protein and the drugs. The ligand–protein binding distance signified high probability of energy transfer between them. Destabilization of the protein structure upon binding was evident from differential scanning calorimetry results and ζ potential analyses. Molecular docking presented the best probable binding sites of the drugs inside protein pockets. Thus, the present study explores the potential binding characteristics of two sulfonamide drugs (with different substitutions) with myoglobin, correlating the structural and energetic aspects.