American Chemical Society
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Harnessing Coherent Light–Matter Interactions for All-Optical Switching and Logic Gate Applications with Macrocyclic Phthalocyanines

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journal contribution
posted on 2024-02-22, 05:43 authored by Sudhanshu Kumar Nayak, Md Soif Ahmed, Rahul Murali, Chinmay Barman, Kalavala Shivaprakash Srivishnu, Lingamallu Giribabu, Venugopal Rao Soma, Sai Santosh Kumar Raavi
The phase modulation exhibited by the coherent interaction of an intense light as it propagates through a nonlinear optical material, imparting a considerable nonlinear phase shift on another weak light field as they cross each other in the same medium, can be potentially exploited for all-optical switching applications. In this study, we implement this coherent light–matter interaction in π-conjugated organic molecules-based phthalocyanine (Pc) derivatives, namely, one free-base and two metalated (Cu and Zn) phthalocyanine macrocyclic complexes, namely FbPc, CuPc, and ZnPc, respectively. Various nonlinear optical (NLO) parameters are estimated by employing the spatial self-phase modulation (SSPM) technique by considering the variation of the number of diffraction rings formed at a far field with different input excitation intensities for these molecules in both solution and thin films. The estimated range of values for nonlinear refractive index (n2) and third-order nonlinear susceptibility (χ(3)) are ∼(1.46–11.13) × 10–5 cm2/W and ∼(2.53–20.3) 10–3 esu, respectively. Among all samples, CuPc exhibited the highest NLO response. Using cross-phase modulation (XPM), a combination of intense light and weak light of different wavelengths propagating through these materials, we demonstrated all-optical switching and OR-logic optical gate applications. These complex light–matter interactions show an emerging window for logic gates and all-optical switching applications.