American Chemical Society
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Gut Microbiota-Derived Metabolite Signature in Suckling and Weaned Piglets

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journal contribution
posted on 2020-12-08, 17:08 authored by Martin Beaumont, Laurent Cauquil, Allan Bertide, Ingrid Ahn, Céline Barilly, Lisa Gil, Cécile Canlet, Olivier Zemb, Géraldine Pascal, Arnaud Samson, Sylvie Combes
The gut microbiota plays a key role in intestinal development at the suckling-to-weaning transition. The objective of this study was to analyze the production of metabolites by the gut microbiota in suckling and weaned piglets. We studied piglets raised in two separate maternity farms and weaned at postnatal day 21 in the same farm. The fecal metabolome (1H nuclear magnetic resonance) and the microbiota composition (16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing) and its predicted functions (PICRUSt2) were analyzed in the same piglets during the suckling period (postnatal day 13) and 2 days after weaning (postnatal day 23). The relative concentrations of the bacterial metabolites methylamine, dimethylamine, cadaverine, tyramine, putrescine, 5-aminovalerate, succinate, and 3-(4-hydroxyphenylpropionate) were higher during the suckling period than after weaning. In contrast, the relative concentrations of the short-chain fatty acids acetate and propionate were higher after weaning than during the suckling period. The maternity of origin of piglets also influenced the level of some bacterial metabolites (propionate and isobutyrate). The fecal metabolome signatures observed in suckling and weaned piglets were associated with specific microbiota-predicted functionalities, structure, and diversity. Gut microbiota-derived metabolites, which are differentially abundant between suckling and weaned piglets (e.g., short-chain fatty acids and biogenic amines), are known to regulate gut health. Thus, identification of metabolome signatures in suckling and weaned piglets paves the way for the development of health-promoting nutritional strategies, targeting the production of bacterial metabolites in early life.