Gold Nanoparticle Enrichment Method for Identifying S-Nitrosylation and S-Glutathionylation Sites in Proteins
journal contributionposted on 25.08.2010, 00:00 by Adam Faccenda, Christopher A. Bonham, Panayiotis O. Vacratsis, Xueji Zhang, Bulent Mutus
We present a simple method by which gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are used to simultaneously isolate and enrich for free or modified thiol-containing peptides, thus facilitating the identification of protein S-modification sites. Here, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and dual specificity phosphatase 12 (DUSP12 or hYVH1) were S-nitrosylated or S-glutathionylated, their free thiols differentially alkylated, and subjected to proteolysis. AuNPs were added to the digests, and the AuNP-bound peptides were isolated by centrifugation and released by thiol exchange. These AuNP-bound peptides were analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry revealing that AuNPs result in a significant enrichment of free thiol-containing as well as S-nitrosylated, S-glutathionylated, and S-alkylated peptides, leading to the unequivocal assignment of thiols susceptible to modification.