Glucose-Derived Palladium(0) Nanoparticles as in Situ-Formed Catalysts for Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reactions in Isopropanol
journal contributionposted on 03.03.2014, 00:00 by Jason E. Camp, Jay J. Dunsford, Edward P. Cannons, William J. Restorick, Anastasia Gadzhieva, Michael W. Fay, Robert J. Smith
Effective and convenient protocols using renewable sugar-derived palladium(0) nanoparticles (PdNPs) as in situ-formed catalysts for Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions in isopropanol under thermal and microwave heating conditions have been developed. The addition of a small amount of glucose (5 mol %) to the reaction mixture lead to an increase in yield of the cross-coupled products compared to control experiments that omitted glucose. The size and morphology of the in situ-formed PdNPs were determined by TEM, and further EF-TEM analysis showed a hydrophilic hydroxylated shell around the individual palladium particles. The polar/hydrophilic nature of the nanoparticles allowed for their facile removal from the cross-coupled product, and a significant decrease in the amount of palladium incorporated into the final product was observed, as measured by ICP-MS analysis.