American Chemical Society
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Gemini Surfactant Mediated Catansomes for Enhanced Singlet Oxygen Generation of Rose Bengal and Their Phototoxicity against Cancer Cells

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journal contribution
posted on 2022-04-12, 17:11 authored by Bunty Sharma, Mario Samperi, Akhil Jain, Ganga Ram Chaudhary, Gurpreet Kaur, Lluïsa Pérez-García
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an innovative technique for cancer treatment with minimal side effects, based on the use of a photosensitizer, oxygen, and light. Photosensitizers (PSs) have several limitations, that may limit their clinical use, like poor solubilization, self-aggregation, and lack of specific targeting, which can be addressed with the use of nanomaterials. Herein, a unique type of catansomes (CaSs) was prepared using a gemini imidazolium-based surfactant (1,3-bis­[(3-octadecyl-1-imidazolio)­methyl]­benzene dibromide (GBIB) and a double chain surfactant, diaoctyl sodium sulfosuccinate or Aerosol OT (AOT). The formation of CaS GBIB/AOT was optimized in various ethanol/water (E/W) solvent ratios by employing a facile, quick, and most reliable solution–solution mixing method. The CaS was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) techniques. The experimental results reveal that stable CaSs with a spherical shape were obtained at lower concentration (100 μM). Rose Bengal (RB), a PS of the xanthene family, was incorporated into these prepared CaSs, as proven by fluorescence spectroscopy, UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Singlet oxygen (1O2) generation studies revealed the relevant role of the E/W solvent ratio as there was a 4-fold boost in the 1O2 production for GBIB/AOT in E/W = 50:50 and around 3-fold in E/W = 30:70. Also, the GBIB-rich 80:20 fraction was more efficient in increasing the 1O2 generation as compared to the AOT rich fraction (20:80). Further, their phototoxicity was tested in a water-rich solvent ratio (E/W = 30:70) against MCF-7 cells. Upon irradiation with a 532 nm laser (50 mW) for 5 min, RB@GBIB/AOT(20:80) fraction caused 50% decrease in the metabolic activity of MCF-7 cells, and RB@GBIB/AOT(80:20) fraction produced a maximum 85% decrease in cell viability. Furthermore, the enhancement in intracellular 1O2 generation by RB@GBIB/AOT, as compared to pure RB, was confirmed with singlet oxygen sensor green (SOSG). This new type of CaS based on gemini surfactants exhibiting a large amount of 1O2 generation, holds great interest for several applications, such as use in photomedicine in future.