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Gd3+:DOTA-Modified 2‑Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin/4-Sulfobutyl Ether-β-Cyclodextrin-Based Polyrotaxanes as Long Circulating High Relaxivity MRI Contrast Agents

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journal contribution
posted on 07.11.2018, 14:27 by Yawo A. Mondjinou, Bradley P. Loren, Christopher J. Collins, Seok-Hee Hyun, Asher Demoret, Joseph Skulsky, Cheyenne Chaplain, Vivek Badwaik, David H. Thompson
A family of five water-soluble Gd3+:1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-tetraacetic acid-modified polyrotaxane (PR) magnetic resonance contrast agents bearing mixtures of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and 4-sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin macrocycles threaded onto Pluronic cores were developed as long circulating magnetic resonance contrast agents. Short diethylene glycol diamine spacers were utilized for linking the macrocyclic chelator to the PR scaffold prior to Gd3+ chelation. The PR products were characterized by 1H NMR, gel permeation chromatography/multiangle light scattering, dynamic light scattering, and analytical ultracentrifugation. Nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion and molar relaxivity measurements at 23 °C revealed that all the PR contrast agents displayed high spin–spin T1 relaxation and spin–lattice T2 relaxation rates relative to a DOTAREM control. When injected at 0.05 mmol Gd/kg body weight in BALB/c mice, the PR contrast agents increased the T1-weighted MR image intensities with longer circulation times in the blood pool than DOTAREM. Excretion of the agents occurred predominantly via the renal or biliary routes depending on the polyrotaxane structure, with the longest circulating L81 Pluronic-based agent showing the highest liver uptake. Proteomic analysis of PR bearing different β-cyclodextrin moieties indicated that lipoproteins were the predominant component associated with these materials after serum exposure, comprising as much as 40% of the total protein corona. We infer from these findings that Gd­(III)-modified PR contrast agents are promising long-circulating candidates for blood pool analysis by MRI.

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