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Ga Ion-Enhanced and Particle Shape-Dependent Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species in X‑ray-Irradiated Composites

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journal contribution
posted on 2018-05-15, 18:31 authored by W. T. Adams, Michael W. Nolan, Albena Ivanisevic
The reported results test the effects of the collective behavior hypothesized to contribute to the production of more reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro and result in an enhanced radiosensitization. The role of particle shape in composites with gallium oxyhydroxide (GaOOH) particles and Matrigel is studied. Particles of two different shapes are embedded into the gel to understand only the materials effect on the generation of ROS rather than cell penetrating variations. The paper reports materials characterization by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The stability of the particles within the composite is assessed by quantification of leached metal using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The amount of ROS in each construct under variable radiation conditions is quantified in the presence and absence of PC12 cells seeded on top of the composites. The viability of cells is also recorded under different in vitro conditions. The collective materials characterization and the results from the bioassays are used to explain the role of anisotropy on the radiosensitization of nanostructures containing Ga. The presence of Ga ions in composites can have a radiosensitizing effect, and the amount of the available Ga3+ determines the magnitude of the radiosensitization. The shape of the particles determines the stability in aqueous solutions and release of Ga3+ that triggers ROS production. The concentration and shape of Ga-containing materials can be combined to generate an additive effect by increasing the amount of available free metal ions in solution. The studies with GaOOH containing composites enable one to explore the role of key parameters that lead to an increased efficiency of radiation treatments.