American Chemical Society
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Functional Characterization of Knockdown Resistance Mutation L1014S in the German Cockroach, Blattella germanica (Linnaeus)

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Version 2 2023-02-02, 17:05
Version 1 2023-01-26, 19:07
journal contribution
posted on 2023-02-02, 17:05 authored by Kaiyang Liu, Shuyue Ma, Kun Zhang, Ruibo Gao, Haifeng Jin, Peng Cao, Zhiguang Yuchi, Shaoying Wu
The effectiveness of pyrethroid insecticides is seriously threatened by knockdown resistance (kdr), which is induced in insects by inherited single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene. VGSC’s L1014F substitution results in the classic kdr mutation, which is found in many pest species. Other substitutions of the L1014 locus, such as L1014S, L1014C, L1014W, and L1014H, were also reported. In 2022, a new amino acid substitute L1014S of Blattella germanica was first discovered in China. We modified the BgNav1-1 sodium channel from cockroaches with the L1014S mutation to study how pyrethroid sensitivity and channel gating were affected in Xenopus oocytes. The L1014S mutation reduced the half-maximal activation voltage (V1/2,act) from −19.0 (wild type) to −15.5 mV while maintaining the voltage dependency of activation. Moreover, the voltage dependence of inactivation in the hyperpolarizing shifts from −48.3 (wild type) to −50.9 mV. However, compared with wild type, the mutation L1014S did not cause a significant shift in the half activation voltage (V1/2,act). Notably, the voltage dependency of activation was unaffected greatly by the L1014S mutation. Tail currents are induced by two types of pyrethroids (1 μM): type I (permethrin, bifenthrin) and type II (deltamethrin, λ-cyhalothrin). All four pyrethroids produced tail currents, and significant differences were found in the percentages of channel modifications between variants and wild types. Further computer modeling showed that the L1014S mutation allosterically modifies pyrethroid binding and action on B. germanica VGSC, with some residues playing a critical role in pyrethroid binding. This study elucidated the pyrethroid resistance mechanism of B. germanica and predicted the residues that may confer the risk of pyrethroid resistance, providing a molecular basis for understanding the resistance mechanisms conferred by mutations at the 1014 site in VGSC.