Following the Compositional Changes of Fresh Grape Skin Cell Walls during the Fermentation Process in the Presence and Absence of Maceration Enzymes
journal contributionposted on 18.03.2015, 00:00 by Anscha J. J. Zietsman, John P. Moore, Jonatan U. Fangel, William G. T. Willats, Johan Trygg, Melané A. Vivier
Cell wall profiling technologies were used to follow compositional changes that occurred in the skins of grape berries (from two different ripeness levels) during fermentation and enzyme maceration. Multivariate data analysis showed that the fermentation process yielded cell walls enriched in hemicellulose components because pectin was solubilized (and removed) with a reduction as well as exposure of cell wall proteins usually embedded within the cell wall structure. The addition of enzymes caused even more depectination, and the enzymes unravelled the cell walls enabling better access to, and extraction of, all cell wall polymers. Overripe grapes had cell walls that were extensively hydrolyzed and depolymerized, probably by natural grape-tissue-ripening enzymes, and this enhanced the impact that the maceration enzymes had on the cell wall monosaccharide profile. The combination of the techniques that were used is an effective direct measurement of the hydrolysis actions of maceration enzymes on the cell walls of grape berry skin.