First Examples of Transition-Metal Free Sonogashira-Type Couplings
journal contributionposted on 24.09.2003, 00:00 by Nicholas E. Leadbeater, Maria Marco, Bonnie J. Tominack
We report here our observation that, using appropriate reaction conditions, the Sonogashira reaction can be performed without the need for transition-metal catalysts. Our approach involves the use of water as a solvent, poly(ethylene glycol) as a phase-transfer agent, and sodium hydroxide as a base. The methodology works, to differing extents, for aryl iodides and bromides.