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Faradaic Counter for Liposomes Loaded with Potassium, Sodium Ions, or Protonated Dopamine

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journal contribution
posted on 2021-07-01, 12:35 authored by Linhan Huang, Jingcheng Zhang, Zhipeng Xiang, Di Wu, Xinjian Huang, Xizhe Huang, Zhenxing Liang, Zhen-Yu Tang, Haiqiang Deng
Collisional electrochemistry between single particles and a biomimetic polarized micro-liquid/liquid interface has emerged as a novel and powerful analytical method for measurements of single particles. Using this platform, rapid detection of liposomes at the single particle level is reported herein. Individual potassium, sodium, or protonated dopamine-encapsulated (pristine or protein-decorated) liposomes collide and fuse with the polarized micro-liquid/liquid interface accompanying the release of ions, which are recorded as spike-like current transients of stochastic nature. The sizing and concentration of the liposomes can be readily estimated by quantifying the amount of encapsulated ions in individual liposomes via integrating each current spike versus time and the spike frequency, respectively. We call this type of nanosensing technology “Faradaic counter”. The estimated liposome size distribution by this method is in line with the dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements, implying that the quantized current spikes are indeed caused by the collisions of individual liposomes. The reported electrochemical sensing technology may become a viable alternative to DLS and other commercial nanoparticle analysis systems, for example, nanoparticle tracking analysis.