Exfoliated Graphene Oxide/MoO2 Composites as Anode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries: An Insight into Intercalation of Li and Conversion Mechanism of MoO2
journal contributionposted on 08.04.2016, 00:00 by Shaikshavali Petnikota, Keefe Wayne Teo, Luo Chen, Amos Sim, Sandeep Kumar Marka, M. V. Reddy, V. V. S. S. Srikanth, S. Adams, B.V.R. Chowdari
Exfoliated graphene oxide (EG)/MoO2 composites are synthesized by a simple solid-state graphenothermal reduction method. Graphene oxide (GO) is used as a reducing agent to reduce MoO3 and as a source for EG. The formation of different submicron sized morphologies such as spheres, rods, flowers, etc., of monoclinic MoO2 on EG surfaces is confirmed by complementary characterization techniques. As-synthesized EG/MoO2 composite with a higher weight percentage of EG performed excellently as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. The galvanostatic cycling studies aided with postcycling cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic intermittent titrations followed by ex situ structural studies clearly indicate that Li intercalation into MoO2 is transformed into conversion upon aging at low current densities while intercalation mechanism is preferably taking place at higher current rates. The intercalation mechanism is found to be promising for steady-state capacity throughout the cycling because of excess graphene and higher current density even in the operating voltage window of 0.005–3.0 V in which MoO2 undergoes conversion below 0.8 V.