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Evolution of Emergent Monopoles into Magnetic Skyrmion Strings

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-06-02, 00:04 authored by Haonan Jin, Wancong Tan, Yizhou Liu, Kejing Ran, Raymond Fan, Yanyan Shangguan, Yao Guang, Gerrit van der Laan, Thorsten Hesjedal, Jinsheng Wen, Guoqiang Yu, Shilei Zhang
Topological defects are fundamental concepts in physics, but little is known about the transition between distinct types across different dimensionalities. In topological magnetism, as in field theory, the transition between 1D strings and 0D monopoles is a key process whose observation has remained elusive. Here, we introduce a novel mechanism that allows for the controlled stabilization of emergent monopoles and show that magnetic skyrmion strings can be folded into monopoles. Conversely, they act as seeds out of which the entire string structure can unfold, containing its complete information. In chiral magnets, this process can be observed by resonant elastic X-ray scattering when the objects are in proximity to a polarized ferromagnet, whereby a pure monopole lattice is emerging on the surface. Our experimental proof of the reversible evolution from monopole to string sheds new light on topological defects and establishes the emergent monopole lattice as a new 3D topological phase.

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