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Evaluation of Real-World Gaseous Emissions Performance of Selective Catalytic Reduction and Diesel Particulate Filter Bus Retrofits

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journal contribution
posted on 15.03.2019, 00:00 by Robin Smit, Christos Keramydas, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Ting-shek Lo, Kwok-lam Ng, Hok-lai Anson Wong, Carol Ka-lok Wong
This study reports on the results of gaseous pollutants emission measurements of double-decker buses in an urban road network, using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS). Measured vehicles were tested by following in-service buses on regular routes. Six Euro II and Euro III buses were retrofitted with diesel particulate filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or a combined SCR+DPF (SCRT) device. Substantial and statistically significant technology impacts were observed for several pollutants. Optimized SCR and SCRT retrofit technology reduced real-world NOx emissions by approximately 70%, on average. Retrofit DPF slightly reduced NOx emissions but increased direct NO2 emissions by more than a factor of 8, on average. SCRT led to about 70% lower NO2 levels than DPF alone, but for some vehicles higher NO2 levels were observed as compared with the “no retrofit” situation, warranting further investigation. None of the SCR systems were found to lead to a substantial increase in NH3 emissions after operation optimization. High NH3 and N2O emissions were occasionally observed while experience with the system calibration was being accumulated. Observed average N2O emission levels for “DPF+SCR” technology were relatively high at 182 mg/kg fuel, corresponding to 1.5% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The study shows that SCR retrofit programs can be effective for NOx reduction of transit buses but that proper calibration and regular emission monitoring are required.