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Epigenetic Regulation of Bmi1 by Ubiquitination and Proteasomal Degradation Inhibit Bcl‑2 in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

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posted on 2020-05-26, 16:33 authored by Avinash Chandra Kushwaha, Soni Jignesh Mohanbhai, Mohammed Nadim Sardoiwala, Ankur Sood, Surajit Karmakar, Subhasree Roy Choudhury
Bmi1 is associated with advanced prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and polyethylenimine (PEI)-stabilized Bmi1 siRNA-entrapped human serum albumin (HSA) nanocarriers (PEI@HSANCs) were used to protect siRNA from degradation and also to control epigenetic regulation-based AML therapy. The nanoform increased the transfection efficiency of Bmi1 siRNA through caveolae-mediated endocytosis and enhanced Bax translocation into the mitochondria. It enhanced the caspase 3-mediated apoptosis through the Bax activation and Bcl-2 inhibition. The molecular analysis reveals the downregulation of polycomb proteins, Bmi1 and EzH2, along with inhibition of H3K27me3 and H2AK119ub1. The signaling cascade revealed downregulation of Bmi1 through ubiquitin-mediated degradation and is reversed by a proteasome inhibitor. Further mechanistic studies established a crucial role of transcription factor, C-Myb and Bmi1, as its direct targets for maintenance and progression of AML. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirmed Bmi1 as a direct target of C-Myb as it binds to promoter sequence of Bmi1 between −235 to +43 and −111 to +43. The in vivo studies performed in the AML xenograft model evidence a decrease in the population of leukemic stem cells marker (CD45+) and an increase in the myeloid differentiating marker expression (CD11b+) in the bone marrow after the Bmi1 siRNA nanoconjugated therapy. Activation of apoptotic pathways and withdrawal of epigenetic repression through a ubiquitin proteasomal pathway potentiating a novel antileukemic therapy were established.

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