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Elucidation of a Monovalent Cation Dependence and Characterization of the Divalent Cation Binding Site of the Fosfomycin Resistance Protein (FosA)

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journal contribution
posted on 14.05.1999, 00:00 by Bryan A. Bernat, L. Timothy Laughlin, Richard N. Armstrong
The fosfomycin resistance protein FosA is a member of a distinct superfamily of metalloenzymes containing glyoxalase I, extradiol dioxygenases, and methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase. The dimeric enzyme, with the aid of a single mononuclear Mn2+ site in each subunit, catalyzes the addition of glutathione (GSH) to the oxirane ring of the antibiotic, rendering it inactive. Sequence alignments suggest that the metal binding site of FosA is composed of three residues:  H7, H67, and E113. The single mutants H7A, H67A, and E113A as well as the more conservative mutants H7Q, H67Q, and E113Q exhibit marked decreases in the ability to bind Mn2+ and, in most instances, decreases in catalytic efficiency and the ability to confer resistance to the antibiotic. The enzyme also requires the monovalent cation K+ for optimal activity. The K+ ion activates the enzyme 100-fold with an activation constant of 6 mM, well below the physiologic concentration of K+ in E. coli. K+ can be replaced by other monovalent cations of similar ionic radii. Several lines of evidence suggest that the K+ ion interacts directly with the active site. Interaction of the enzyme with K+ is found to be dependent on the presence of the substrate fosfomycin. Moreover, the E113Q mutant exhibits a kcat which is 40% that of wild-type in the absence of K+. This mutant is not activated by monovalent cations. The behavior of the E113Q mutant is consistent with the proposition that the K+ ion helps balance the charge at the metal center, further lowering the activation barrier for addition of the anionic nucleophile. The fully activated, native enzyme provides a rate acceleration of >1015 with respect to the spontaneous addition of GSH to the oxirane.