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Elucidating Transport-Recombination Mechanisms in Perovskite Solar Cells by Small-Perturbation Techniques

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journal contribution
posted on 09.10.2014, 00:00 by Elena Guillén, F. Javier Ramos, Juan A. Anta, Shahzada Ahmad
Solar cells using perovskite as semiconducting pigment have recently attracted a surge of interest owing to their remarkable solar-to-electric conversion efficiencies and ease of processing. In this direction various device architectures and materials have been employed, and attempts were made to elucidate the underlying working principles. However, factors governing the performance of perovskite devices are still obscure. For instance, the interpretation of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is not straightforward, and the complexity of the equivalent circuits hinders the identification of transport and recombination mechanisms in devices, especially those that determine the performance of the device. Here in we carried out a comprehensive and complementary characterization of perovskite solar cells by using an array of small-perturbation techniques: EIS and intensity-modulated photocurrent and photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS). The employment of IMPS allowed us to identify two transport times separated by 2 orders of magnitude and with opposite voltage dependences. For recombination, well agreement was found between lifetimes obtained by IMVS and EIS. The feature associated with recombination and charge accumulation in an impedance spectrum through correlation to the IMVS response was experimentally identified. This correlation paves the way to reconstruct the current–voltage curve using a continuity equation model for transport and recombination in the working device. The adopted methodology demonstrates that complementary techniques facilitate the interpretation of EIS results in perovskite solar cells, allowing us for the identification of the transport-recombination mechanisms and providing new insights into the efficiency-determining steps.