Elimination−Addition Mechanism for Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction of Cyclohexenyl Iodonium Salts and Regioselectivity of Nucleophilic Addition to the Cyclohexyne Intermediate
journal contributionposted on 23.06.2004, 00:00 by Morifumi Fujita, Wan Hyeok Kim, Yuichi Sakanishi, Koji Fujiwara, Sayaka Hirayama, Tadashi Okuyama, Yasuhiro Ohki, Kazuyuki Tatsumi, Yasunori Yoshioka
The reaction of 4-substituted cyclohex-1-enyl(phenyl)iodonium tetrafluoroborate with tetrabutylammonium acetate gives both the ipso and cine acetate-substitution products in aprotic solvents. The isomeric 5-substituted iodonium salt also gives the same mixture of the isomeric acetate products. The reaction is best explained by an elimination−addition mechanism with 4-substituted cyclohexyne as a common intermediate. The cyclohexyne formation was confirmed by deuterium labeling and trapping to lead to [4 + 2] cycloadducts and a platinum−cyclohexyne complex. Cyclohexyne can also be generated in the presence of some other mild bases such as fluoride ion, alkoxides, and amines, though amines are less effective bases for the elimination. Kinetic deuterium isotope effects show that the anionic bases induce the E2 elimination (kH/kD > 2), while the amines allow formation of a cyclohexenyl cation in chloroform to lead to E1 as well as SN1 reactions (kH/kD ≈ 1). Bases are much less effective in methanol, and methoxide was the only base to efficiently afford the cyclohexyne intermediate. Nucleophiles react with the cyclohexyne to give regioisomeric products in the ratio dependent on the ring substituent. The observed regioselectivity of nucleophilic addition to substituted cyclohexynes is rationalized from calculated LUMO populations, which are governed by the bond angles at the acetylenic carbons: The less deformed carbon has a higher LUMO population and is preferentially attacked by the nucleophile.
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cyclohexyne formationnucleophilic additionring substituentNucleophilic Substitution ReactionCyclohexyne IntermediateLUMO populationsE 2 eliminationbond anglescyclohexenyl cationisomeric acetate productstetrabutylammonium acetateLUMO populationiodonium saltaminesNucleophilic AdditionKinetic deuterium isotope effects showfluoride ionS N 1 reactionsregioisomeric productsCyclohexenyl Iodonium Saltsaprotic solventsE 1