American Chemical Society
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Electrochemistry of Methylene Blue Bound to a DNA-Modified Electrode

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journal contribution
posted on 1997-01-29, 00:00 authored by Shana O. Kelley, Jacqueline K. Barton, Nicole M. Jackson, Michael G. Hill
Gold surfaces have been derivatized with 15-base-pair double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides containing a pendant 5‘ hexanethiol linker. The electrochemistry of intercalated methylene blue has been investigated at these modified electrodes. Chronocoulometry, cyclic voltammetry, ellipsometry, and quantitation via 32P labeling are all consistent with a surface coverage of ≥75% with the DNA helices stacked at an angle from the electrode surface. Cyclic voltammetry at low methylene blue/duplex stoichiometries yields well-behaved surface waves with E° = −0.25 V (vs SCE), a value 0.03 V negative of that in aqueous solution. A binding isotherm for methylene blue at an electrode derivatized with the double-stranded sequence 5‘ SH-(CH2)6-p-AGTACAGTCATCGCG 3‘ was obtained from coulometric titrations and gave an affinity constant equal to 3.8(5) × 106 M-1 with a saturation value of 1.4(2) methylene blue intercalators per DNA duplex. Taken together, these experiments support a model for the surface morphology in which DNA duplexes are densely packed; methylene blue therefore reversibly binds to sites in the DNA that are close to the bulk solution. Electrochemistry at DNA-derivatized electrodes provides a valuable methodology to examine DNA-bound redox reactions and may offer new insight into DNA-mediated electron transfers.